This paper describes the results of a research project conducted by researchers at the University of Bedfordshire and the NSPCC, jointly managed by the University of Bedfordshire and the NSPCC, and principally funded through The Children's Charity. "A team of four researchers worked over a two-year period in three sites in the UK to: review international and UK literature on trafficking; conduct focus groups and interviews with a total of 72 practitioners from a range of children's services selected as the most experienced in working with cases of trafficked children and young people; and analyse 37 cases of children and young people: 27 who had been trafficked into the UK from abroad for various forms of exploitation; and 10 UK citizens who were trafficked within the UK for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The research project was supported by a multidisciplinary advisory group and an independent academic consultant. The research is a qualitative project. It is not an overview of how many or why children are trafficked. It is an assessment of the complexities and problems faced by practitioners who are working with the cases."