The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends HIV testing for all women who are pregnant. Early testing allows women and their doctors to make very important decisions about how to ensure the baby is born HIV-negative. Mother to child transmission of HIV can happen during pregnancy, during delivery, or through breastfeeding, so it is recommended that HIV-positive mothers, even those on anti-HIV medications, do not breastfeed. According to the National Institutes of Health (2012), less than 2% of babies born in the United States to HIV positive mother contract HIV. This is due in large part to anti-HIV medications given during pregnancy, and alternatives to breastfeeding.