Developed from the experiences of battered women, the Power and Control Wheel shows patterns and actions individuals intentionally use to exercise control over their intimate partners. The wheels provided below reflect unique experiences of immigrant women who experience domestic violence. However, the Power & Control Wheel has some limitations. For example, it omits certain types of domestic violence present in Asian families. The Asian Pacific Institute on Gender-Based Violence offers the Lifetime Spiral listed below, which is more relevant to this population group and may be more relevant to others as well. By enumerating types of violence over the lifecourse, the Lifetime Spiral implicitly locates a range of abusers in the lives of girls and women, revealing patterns of victimization and perpetration.